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COVID-19 Treatment: Investigational Drugs and Other

Details: The drugs for the trial were donated by the manufacturers; however, approximate costs are $400/day for imatinib, $3,500 for a dose of infliximab, and $50,000 for a course of artesunate. Next: Antiviral Agents. Remdesivir. Remdesivir (Veklury) was the first drug approved by the FDA for treating the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is indicated for treatment

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Oral Hypoglycemic Agents: Oral Antihyperglycemic Drugs

Details: Oral Antihyperglycemic Drugs. Oral antihyperglycemic agents lower glucose levels in the blood. They are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. [ 1, 2] Biguanides decrease hepatic glucose production, decrease gastrointestinal glucose absorption, and increase target cell insulin sensitivity. Contraindications: Metabolic acidosis

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Fixed Drug Eruptions Medication

Details: Medication Summary. Lesions of fixed drug eruption resolve spontaneously with avoidance of the inciting drug. Additional medications should be used to relieve symptoms associated with the condition. Generally, an oral antihistamine (eg, hydroxyzine) and a topical corticosteroid may be sufficient. The use of corticosteroids may interfere with

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Tuberculosis (TB) Medication: Antitubercular agents

Details: The treatment of tuberculosis (TB) must satisfy the following basic therapeutic principles: New cases are initially treated with four drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and either ethambutol or streptomycin. After 2 months, they are then treated with a continuation phase of 4 months with isoniazid and rifampin.

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Spasticity Medication: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

Details: Spasticity is increased, involuntary, velocity-dependent muscle tone that causes resistance to movement. The condition may occur secondary to a disorder or trauma, such as a tumor, a stroke, multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebral palsy, or a spinal cord, brain, or peripheral nerve injury.

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Hyperhidrosis Medication: Aluminum Compounds

Details: These drugs inhibit the binding of acetylcholine to the cholinergic receptor. Clinical effects usually occur within days. Glycopyrronium tosylate topical (Qbrexza) View full drug information; This is a topically applied anticholinergic agent that inhibits the action of acetylcholine on sweat glands. It is indicated for primary axillary

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Ventricular Fibrillation Medication: Antidysrhythmics, Ia

Details: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia in which the coordinated contraction of the ventricular myocardium is replaced by high-frequency, disorganized excitation, resulting in failure of the heart to pump blood. VF is the most commonly identified arrhythmia in cardiac arrest patients.

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Cholestasis Medication: Choleretic agents, Barbiturates

Details: Cholestasis is defined as a decrease in bile flow due to impaired secretion by hepatocytes or to obstruction of bile flow through intra-or extrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, the clinical definition of cholestasis is any condition in which substances normally excreted into bile are retained.

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Perioperative Medication Management: Overview

Details: Neuroleptic drugs. This group of drugs is used primarily to treat psychotic symptoms and constitutes a chemically heterogeneous group of major tranquilizers, such as the phenothiazines, butyrophenones, thioxanthenes, indolones, and dibenzoxazepines. Most adverse …

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Immunosuppression: Practice Essentials, History, Drugs

Details: Immunosuppressive drugs can be classified as induction therapies, maintenance therapies and antirejection therapies. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapies include small molecule drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and antiproliferatives), fusion proteins and glucorticorticoids.

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Ventricular Tachycardia Medication: Antiarrhythmics, Class

Details: The mainstays of treatment for clinically stable ventricular tachycardia (VT) are the various antiarrhythmic drugs. In the United Sates, the intravenous (IV) antiarrhythmic drugs available for suppression of acute monomorphic VT are limited to procainamide, lidocaine, and amiodarone, along with the beta-adrenergic blocking agents metoprolol, esmolol, and propranolol.

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Atrial Tachycardia Medication: Beta Blockers, Intrinsic

Details: These drugs have been tried in patients with refractory recurrent atrial tachycardia and disabling symptoms in whom beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers were unsuccessful. These drugs prolong the atrial refractoriness and slow the conduction velocity, thereby disrupting the reentrant circuit.

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Myokymia Medication: Antiepileptic agents

Details: Myokymia, a form of involuntary muscular movement, usually can be visualized on the skin as vermicular or continuous rippling movements. The word myokymia was used first more than 100 years ago, when Schultze described continuous, slow, undulating muscular contractions in small muscles of …

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Meniscus Injuries Medication: Nonsteroidal anti

Details: However, these drugs are commonly used in the postoperative period when surgical treatment is necessary. Many options are available, and narcotic analgesics are commonly combined with drugs from the above categories. Common examples are listed.

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Alcoholic Neuropathy Medication: Anticonvulsants

Details: These drugs have central and peripheral anticholinergic effects, as well as sedative effects, and they block the active reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. The multifactorial mechanism of analgesia could include improved sleep, an altered perception of pain, and an increase in the pain threshold.

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Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Medication

Details: Medication Summary. No drug has proved beneficial in the prevention or management of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Early administration of corticosteroids to septic patients does not prevent the development of ARDS. Numerous pharmacologic therapies, including the use of inhaled or instilled synthetic surfactant, intravenous (IV

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Tendonitis Medication: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory

Details: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) Class Summary. These agents are used for the relief of mild to moderate pain. Although the effects of NSAIDs in the treatment of pain tend to be patient specific, ibuprofen usually is the drug of choice (DOC) for initial therapy. …

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Atelectasis Medication: Bronchodilators, Antibiotics

Details: Bronchodilators decrease muscle tone in both the small and large airways in the lungs, thereby increasing ventilation. They include subcutaneous medications, beta-adrenergic agents, methylxanthines, and anticholinergics. Albuterol is a beta-agonist …

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Hypernatremia Medication: Diuretics, Vasopressin analogs

Details: These drugs may be used to enhance sodium excretion. Hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, HydroDiuril, Microzide) View full drug information. Inhibits the reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubules, causing increased excretion of sodium and water, as well as of potassium and hydrogen ions. Furosemide (Lasix)

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Nephrolithiasis Medication: Analgesics, Narcotic

Details: Labrecque M, Dostaler LP, Rousselle R, Nguyen T, Poirier S. Efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of acute renal colic. A meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jun 27. 154(12):1381-7. .

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Hyperuricemia Medication: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory

Details: Other uricosuric drugs used in underexcretors are mentioned below. Next: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. Class Summary. Management of pain and inflammation in gout. Have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase, thus inhibiting biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from

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Down Syndrome Medication: Analgesics, Other

Details: Morphine is a narcotic drug that interferes with opioid receptors; it mainly acts on the central nervous system (CNS) and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Caldolor) View full drug information. Ibuprofen is a member of the propionic acid group …

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Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Medication: Anxiolytics

Details: Once postoperative bleeding risk is decreased, consider testing of response to antiplatelet drugs, either with genetic testing or with point-of-care platelet function testing, to optimize antiplatelet drug effect and minimize thrombotic risk to vein grafts : Class IIb.

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Primary Aldosteronism Medication: Aldosterone Antagonists

Details: Amiloride is a pyrazine-carbonyl-guanidine unrelated chemically to other known antikaliuretic or diuretic agents. It is a potassium-conserving (antikaliuretic) drug that, compared with thiazide diuretics, possesses weak natriuretic, diuretic, and antihypertensive activity.

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Chronic Glomerulonephritis Medication: ACE Inhibitors

Details: These drugs act directly on the smooth muscle in the peripheral vasculature to cause vasodilation. Tachycardia and fluid retention are common adverse effects. Prolonged use of minoxidil can cause hypertrichosis. Hydralazine can cause a lupuslike syndrome in certain populations of slow acetylators.

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Ventricular Premature Complexes Medication: Antiarrhythmic

Details: Class III drugs (eg, amiodarone, sotalol) are approved for use only in life-threatening arrhythmia. Recent data suggest that amiodarone is safe post-MI for patients with VPCs, but does not reduce mortality. Amiodarone is the drug of choice in patients who can not tolerate beta-blockers.

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Premature Ventricular Contraction Medication

Details: This category of drugs has the potential to suppress ventricular ectopy due to ischemia or excess catecholamines. In myocardial ischemia, beta-blockers have antiarrhythmic properties and reduce myocardial oxygen demand secondary to elevations in heart rate and inotropy.

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Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Medication: CNS stimulants

Details: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)—also referred to as obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH)—is a sleep disorder that involves cessation or significant decrease in airflow in the presence of breathing effort. It is the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and is characterized by recurrent episodes of upper airway (UA) collapse du

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Hyperammonemia Medication: Urea Cycle Disorder Treatment

Details: These drugs lower blood ammonia concentrations by conjugation reactions involving acylation of amino acids. Sodium phenylbutyrate is a prodrug and is metabolized to phenylacetate. Phenylacetate then conjugates with glutamine to form phenylacetylglutamine, which is then excreted by the kidneys. On a molar basis, 1 mole of phenylacetate removes 2

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Cholecystitis Medication: Antiemetics, Analgesics, Antibiotics

Details: Cholecystitis is defined as inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs most commonly because of an obstruction of the cystic duct from cholelithiasis. Ninety percent of cases involve stones in the cystic duct (ie, calculous cholecystitis), with the other 10% of cases representing acalculous cholecystitis.

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Familial Hypercholesterolemia Medication: HMG-CoA

Details: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder that causes severe elevations in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Xanthomas are noted commonly on the Achilles tendons and metacarpal phalangeal extensor tendons of the hands of patients with untreated FH.

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Constipation Medication: Laxatives, Bulk-Producing

Details: These drugs are best used for prophylaxis in a short-term setting, such as in patients receiving a postoperative narcotic prescription. Rapidly acting lubricants and laxatives, including over-the-counter products, are often used to treat acute and chronic constipation.

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First-Degree Atrioventricular Block Medication

Details: First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block, or first-degree heart block, is defined as prolongation of the PR interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) to more than 200 msec. The PR interval of the surface ECG is measured from the onset of atrial depolarization (P wave) to …

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Chlamydia (Chlamydial Genitourinary Infections) Medication

Details: Second-line drugs (eg, erythromycin, penicillins, and sulfamethoxazole) are less effective and have more adverse effects. Azithromycin (Zithromax, Zmax) View full drug information; Azithromycin is a relatively new member macrolide antibiotic that possesses activity against various different bacterial organisms. It binds to the 50S ribosomal

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Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block (Complete Heart Block

Details: Common drugs that induce atrioventricular (AV) block include beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, antiarrhythmics, and digoxin. Withdrawal of the offending drugs is the first treatment for heart block. Patients with block at the level of the AV node (AVN), in the absence of ischemia, can benefit from sympathomimetic agents or vagolytic agents.

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Chronic Pancreatitis Medication: Analgesics, Other, Opioid

Details: Class Summary. Initial therapy consists of acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). For severe, refractory pain, narcotic analgesics often are required, starting with the least potent agents and progressing to more potent formulations as necessary.

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Femoral Shaft Fractures in Emergency Medicine Medication

Details: These drugs are most commonly used for relief of mild to moderately severe pain. Effects of NSAIDs in treatment of pain tend to be patient specific, yet ibuprofen is usually DOC for initial therapy. Other options include flurbiprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen.

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Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Medication

Details: Drugs in this category act primarily by increasing systemic vascular resistance, cardiac contractility, and stroke volume, thus increasing cardiac output. Most inotropic agents also have dose and gestational age-dependent effects on vessels, particularly those of the renal and GI systems. For the most part, these effects are beneficial but, at

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Tardive Dystonia Medication: Dopamine-depleting agents

Details: Tardive dystonia may improve or, rarely, resolve, after discontinuation of neuroleptics; however, the condition is often permanent. Medications used for treatment include dopamine-depleting agents, dopamine receptor blocking agents, and anticholinergics.

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Pulmonary Embolism (PE) Medication: Anticoagulants

Details: At least 186 different foods and drugs reportedly interact with warfarin. Clinically significant interactions have been verified for a total of 26 common drugs and foods, including 6 antibiotics and 5 cardiac drugs. Every effort should be made to keep the patient adequately anticoagulated at all times, because procoagulant factors recover first

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Rosacea Medication: Immunosuppressants, Antibiotics

Details: J Drugs Dermatol. 2014 Mar. 13(3):316-23. . Allen KJ, Davis CL, Billings SD, Mousdicas N. Recalcitrant papulopustular rosacea in an immunocompetent patient responding to combination therapy with oral ivermectin and topical permethrin. Cutis. 2007 Aug. 80(2):149-51. .

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Diverticulitis Medication: Antibiotics

Details: Drugs of this class are a good choice for empiric therapy of GI-based infections in hospitalized patients with complicated conditions. Gentamicin. View full drug information; Aminoglycoside antibiotic used to cover gram-negative organisms. Not the drug of choice (DOC). Consider if penicillins or other less toxic drugs are contraindicated, when

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Carotid Endarterectomy Medication: Antidysrhythmics, Ib

Details: All patients resume their antiplatelet drugs, primarily aspirin, immediately after surgery; clopidogrel is given if aspirin is contraindicated. Maximal medical therapy, …

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Migraine Headache Medication: Serotonin 5-HT1F Agonists

Details: Drugs in this category are commonly combined with diphenhydramine to minimize the risk of akathisia. This combination of drugs has been found to be superior to subcutaneous sumatriptan when administered intravenously to emergency department patients. Prochlorperazine (Compro, Compazine) View full drug information

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Acute Pyelonephritis Medication: Sulfonamides

Details: These drugs are the most active against serious gram-negative pathogens and have some activity against gram-positive pathogens. Ceftriaxone . View full drug information; Ceftriaxone is a parenteral regimen that can be administered once daily in patients with pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization. For patients with mild to moderate

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Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG) Medication: Beta

Details: These drugs are less effective, and their duration of action is shorter than many other classes of drugs. Adverse effects are relatively rare but include superficial punctate keratitis, acidosis, paresthesias, anorexia, nausea, depression, dysgeusia, and lassitude.

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Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) Medication: Anticoagulants

Details: Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2008 Nov 3. 50 (1298):86-8. . Jaffer AK, Brotman DJ. Prevention of venous thromboembolism after surgery. Clin Geriatr Med. 2008 Nov. 24(4):625-39, viii. . Piazza G, Goldhaber SZ. Physician alerts to prevent venous thromboembolism. J Thromb

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Viral Pneumonia Medication: Antiviral agents, Monoclonal

Details: Agents used include amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, oseltamivir, ribavirin, acyclovir, ganciclovir, and foscarnet are used. The influenza drugs may be used as either prophylactic or therapeutic agents. Hyperimmune globulin is used primarily for passive immunization in …

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