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Overview of Drugs

Details: Overview of Drugs. A drug is defined by U.S. law as any substance (other than a food or device) intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or function of the body. (Oral contraceptives are an example of drugs that affect the function of the body rather than a disease

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Overview of Generic Drugs and Drug Naming

Details: Overview of Generic Drugs and Drug Naming. Drugs often have several names. When a drug is first discovered, it is given a chemical name, which describes the atomic or molecular structure of the drug. The chemical name is thus usually too complex and cumbersome for general use. Next, a shorthand version of the chemical name or a code name (such

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Drug Design and Development

Details: Many of the drugs Overview of Drugs A drug is defined by U.S. law as any substance (other than a food or device) intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure read more in current use were discovered by experiments conducted in animals and humans. However, many drugs are now being designed with the specific disorder

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Drugs and the Liver

Details: Drugs can affect how quickly certain other drugs are metabolized in the liver. If a drug is metabolized more quickly, it may be broken down and eliminated before it can do what it is supposed to do. In slower drug metabolism Drug Metabolism Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body.

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Drugs for Arrhythmias

Details: The primary indications are supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) for class Ia and Ic drugs and ventricular tachycardia (VTs) for all class I drugs. Adverse effects of class I drugs include proarrhythmia, a drug-related arrhythmia worse than the arrhythmia being treated, which is the most worrisome adverse effect.

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Site Selectivity

Details: The drugs then interact with cells or tissues where they produce their intended effects (target sites). This interaction is called selectivity. Selectivity is the degree to which a drug acts on a given site relative to other sites. Relatively nonselective drugs affect many different tissues or organs. For example, atropine, a drug given to

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Tolerance and Resistance to Drugs

Details: Tolerance and Resistance to Drugs. Tolerance is a person's diminished response to a drug, which occurs when the drug is used repeatedly and the body adapts to the continued presence of the drug. Resistance refers to the ability of microorganisms or cancer cells to withstand the effects of …

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Types of Adverse Drug Reactions

Details: There are several different types: Dose-related. Allergic. Idiosyncratic. Dose-related adverse drug reactions represent an exaggeration of the drug's therapeutic effects. For example, a person taking a drug to reduce high blood pressure may feel dizzy or light-headed if …

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Drug Effectiveness and Safety

Details: The main goals of drug development Drug Design and Development Many of the drugs in current use were discovered by experiments conducted in animals and humans. However, many drugs are now being designed with the specific disorder in view. Abnormal biochemical read more are effectiveness and safety. Because all drugs Overview of Drugs A drug is defined by U.S. law as any substance …

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Drug Administration

Details: Drugs applied to the skin are usually used for their local effects and thus are most commonly used to treat superficial skin disorders, such as psoriasis Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, recurring disease that causes one or more raised, red patches that have silvery scales and a distinct border between the patch and normal skin. A problem with

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Drug Distribution

Details: Drugs penetrate different tissues at different speeds, depending on the drug’s ability to cross membranes. For example, the antibiotic rifampin, a highly fat-soluble drug, rapidly enters the brain, but the antibiotic penicillin, a water-soluble drug, does not.In general, fat-soluble drugs can cross cell membranes more quickly than water-soluble drugs can.

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Definition of Drug Dynamics

Details: Research studies may use substances designed to resemble drugs, but that do not contain any active drug components. These may look exactly like a particular drug, but they are composed of starch, sugar, or other harmless, non-drug substances.

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Antipsychotic Drugs

Details: Different drugs are available in tablet, liquid, and short- and long-acting IM preparations Long-acting antipsychotic drugs Antipsychotic drugs are divided into conventional antipsychotics and 2nd-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) based on their specific neurotransmitter receptor affinity and …

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Generic Biologic Drugs

Details: Interchangeable drugs, additionally, are expected to provide the same benefits and risks as the original brand name biologic. Zarxio is a biosimilar drug to filgrastim (a drug used in cancer patients to help maintain their white blood cell counts). It is the first drug approved by the FDA as a biosimilar, not as an interchangeable, product.

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Benefits Versus Risks of Drugs

Details: For such symptoms, over-the-counter drugs are usually effective and well tolerated. When used according to directions, over-the-counter drugs for treating minor disorders have a wide safety margin (the difference between the usual effective dose and the …

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Severity of Adverse Drug Reactions

Details: Other drugs may be used to control the adverse drug reaction (for example, a stool softener to relieve constipation). Mild adverse drug reactions . Mild reactions usually described as of minor significance include . Digestive disturbances (such as nausea, constipation, diarrhea)

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Risk Factors for Adverse Drug Reactions

Details: Taking several drugs, whether prescription or over-the-counter, contributes to the risk of having an adverse drug reaction (see Drug-Drug Interactions Drug-Drug Interactions The effect a drug has on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with Another drug the person is taking (drug-drug interaction) Food, beverages, or supplements the

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Overdose Toxicity

Details: A lower risk of overdose toxicity is often the reason doctors prefer one drug to another when both drugs are equally effective. For example, if a sedative, antianxiety drug, or sleep aid is needed, doctors prescribe benzodiazepines, such as diazepam and temazepam, rather than barbiturates, such as phenobarbital.Benzodiazepines are not more effective than barbiturates, but they have a wider

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Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Details: Drugs that complex 5-ASA with other vehicles seem almost equally effective but have fewer adverse effects. Olsalazine (a 5-ASA dimer) and balsalazide (5-ASA conjugated to an inactive compound) are cleaved by bacterial azoreductases (as is sulfasalazine).These drugs are activated mainly in the colon and are less effective for proximal small-bowel disease.

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Overview of Over-the-Counter Drugs

Details: Overview of Over-the-Counter Drugs. Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are those available without a prescription. OTC drugs enable people to relieve many annoying symptoms and to cure some diseases simply and without the cost of seeing a doctor. However, safe use of these drugs requires knowledge, common sense, and responsibility.

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Drugs for Heart Failure

Details: These drugs may have particular benefit in chronic right ventricular failure, in which hepatic congestion results in elevated aldosterone levels as aldosterone metabolism is reduced. To reduce the risk of hyperkalemia, aldosterone antagonists should generally be given only to patients whose potassium level is 5.0 mEq/L ( 5 mmol/L), serum

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Overview of Response to Drugs

Details: The more drugs people take, the more likely they are to have problems caused by one drug interfering with another drug or disease. With aging, people also may have more difficulty following complicated instructions for taking drugs, such as to take the drug at very specific times or to avoid certain foods.

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Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs

Details: Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs. Drug administration is the giving of a drug by one of several means (routes). Drug kinetics (pharmacokinetics) describes how the body handles a drug and accounts for the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination.

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Overview of Drugs

Details: Overview of Drugs. A drug is defined by U.S. law as any substance (other than a food or device) intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, relief, treatment, or prevention of disease or intended to affect the structure or function of the body. (Oral contraceptives are an example of drugs that affect the function of the body rather than a disease

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Bioequivalence and Interchangeability of Generic Drugs

Details: Drugs that must be given in very precise amounts are less likely to be interchangeable, because the difference between an effective dose and a harmful dose (the margin of safety) or ineffective dose is small. Digoxin, used to treat people with heart failure, is an example.

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Drug Elimination

Details: Most drugs, particularly water-soluble drugs and their metabolites, are eliminated largely by the kidneys in urine. Therefore, drug dosing depends largely on kidney function. Some drugs are eliminated by excretion in the bile (a greenish yellow fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder).

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Drug Efficacy and Safety

Details: Drug Efficacy and Safety. Obviously, a drug (or any medical treatment) should be used only when it will benefit a patient. Benefit takes into account both the drug's ability to produce the desired result (efficacy) and the type and likelihood of adverse effects (safety). Cost is commonly also balanced with benefit (see Economic Analyses in

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Drug Treatment of Seizures

Details: Some drugs (eg, phenytoin, valproate), given IV or orally, reach the targeted therapeutic range very rapidly.Others (eg, lamotrigine, topiramate) must be started at a relatively low dose and gradually increased over several weeks to the standard therapeutic dose, based on the patient’s lean body mass.Dose should be tailored to the patient’s tolerance of the drug.

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Drug and Substance Use in Adolescents

Details: Prescription drugs particularly misused include opioid analgesics Opioid Analgesics Nonopioid and opioid analgesics are the main drugs used to treat pain. Antidepressants, antiseizure drugs, and other central nervous system (CNS)–active drugs may also be used for chronic or

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Precautions With Over-the-Counter Drugs

Details: Drugs can move from a pregnant woman to her fetus (primarily through the placenta—see Drug Delivery During Pregnancy Drug Use During Pregnancy More than 50% of pregnant women take prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter) drugs or use social drugs (such as tobacco and alcohol) or illicit drugs at some time during pregnancy

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Drug Interactions

Details: Drug interactions are changes in a drug’s effects due to recent or concurrent use of another drug or drugs (drug-drug interactions), ingestion of food (drug-nutrient interactions Nutrient-Drug Interactions Nutrition can affect the body’s response to drugs; conversely, drugs can affect the body’s nutrition.Foods can enhance, delay, or decrease drug absorption.

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Drug-Induced Ototoxicity

Details: Key Points. Drugs may cause hearing loss, dysequilibrium, and/or tinnitus. Common drugs include aminoglycosides, platinum-containing chemotherapy drugs, and high-dose salicylates. Symptoms may be transient or permanent. Using the lowest possible dose of aminoglycosides and measuring drug levels during treatment may prevent hearing loss caused

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Drug Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

Details: But the drugs are otherwise safe and can be used in combination with all other oral drugs and with insulin. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors GLP-1 is a peptide made in the small intestine that stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion; prolonging its action thereby lowers plasma glucose.

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Drug Distribution to Tissues

Details: Drugs reach the central nervous system (CNS) via brain capillaries and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Although the brain receives about one sixth of cardiac output, drug penetration is restricted because of the brain’s permeability characteristics. Although some lipid-soluble drugs (eg, thiopental) enter the brain readily, polar compounds do not.

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Overview of Pharmacodynamics

Details: Pharmacodynamics (sometimes described as what a drug does to the body) is the study of the biochemical, physiologic, and molecular effects of drugs on the body and involves receptor binding. Drug–Receptor Interactions Receptors are macromolecules involved in chemical signaling between and within cells; they may be located on the cell surface

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Genetic Makeup and Response to Drugs

Details: Drugs, such as isoniazid (which is used to treat tuberculosis), that are metabolized by this enzyme tend to reach higher blood levels and remain in the body longer in slow acetylators than they do in people in whom this enzyme metabolizes drugs rapidly (fast acetylators).

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Drug Treatment of Gastric Acidity

Details: Drugs for decreasing acidity are used for peptic ulcer Peptic Ulcer Disease A peptic ulcer is an erosion in a segment of the gastrointestinal mucosa, typically in the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the first few centimeters of the duodenum (duodenal ulcer), that penetrates read more , gastroesophageal reflux disease Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) Incompetence of the lower esophageal

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Adherence to Drug Treatment

Details: Taking several drugs makes remembering when to take each drug harder and increases the risk of adverse drug-drug interactions Drug Interactions The effect a drug has on a person may be different than expected because that drug interacts with Another drug the person is …

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Overview of Drug Treatment in Children

Details: Most drugs have not been adequately studied in children, but federal legislation (the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act of 2001 and the Pediatric Research Equity Act of 2003, both made permanent in 2012—2 General references Drug treatment in children differs from that in adults, most obviously because pediatric drug dosing is usually based on weight or surface area (1).

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Drug Elimination

Details: Some drugs are excreted in saliva, sweat, breast milk, and even exhaled air. Most are excreted in small amounts. The excretion of drugs in breast milk is significant only because the drug may affect the breastfeeding infant (see Drugs That Should Not Be Taken While Breastfeeding). Excretion in exhaled air is the main way that inhaled

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