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Antiparasitic Drugs

Details: Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Antiparasitic drugs include several classes of drugs that cover a broad range of diseases caused by parasites. This activity outlines the indications, mechanisms of action, adverse effects, and contraindications for various classes of

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The high cost of prescription drugs: causes and solutions

Details: The high cost of prescription drugs threatens healthcare budgets, and limits funding available for other areas in which public investment is needed. In countries without universal healthcare, the high cost of prescription drugs poses an additional threat: unaffordable out-of-pocket costs for individual patients.

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Comprehension of Top 200 Prescribed Drugs in the US as …

Details: The drugs not listed as top 200 drugs in the ClinCalc website were excluded. Additionally, if a drug is used in combination with another drug it is treated as a separate drug entity from the parent drug. Figure 1 (a) List of 1–50 most prescribed drugs; (b) List of 51–100 most

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Chiral Drugs: An Overview

Details: As drugs are small molecules called haptens, they need to be conjugated to a support or to a carrier molecule (protein) by forming an immunogen so that the immune system (B cells) could produce corresponding antibody (54, 55). The conjugation of a hapten such as an enantiomer with a protein is a delicate and difficult step of the immunogen

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New drugs for NASH

Details: Therefore, effective drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of NASH. Drug development targeting pathological pathways in NASH have exploded in the past decade, with numerous new drugs under investigation. This review summarizes the results of pivotal finalized phase 2 studies and provides an outline of key active studies with trial data of

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Magnesium and Drugs

Details: Drugs and micronutrients use the same transport and metabolism pathways in the body for their intestinal absorption, metabolism, and elimination. This means that when one or more drugs are taken, there is always a potential risk of interactions with the nutrient status.

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Drug delivery systems: An updated review

Details: One of the possibilities to deliver drugs to the brain is the employment of nanoparticles. Nanopartiacles are polymeric particles made of natural or artificial polymers ranging in size between about 10 and 1000 nm (1 mm). Drugs may be bound inform of a solid solution or dispersion or be adsorbed to the surface or chemically attached.

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First‐line drugs for hypertension

Details: For each class of drugs, the blood pressure data were heterogeneous, however the effects remained highly significant, using the random‐effects model. Because of the high heterogeneity, and the fact that in many trials, other drugs were allowed, we did not think this was an accurate reflection of the blood pressure lowering effect of the first

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Hepatotoxicity by Drugs: The Most Common Implicated …

Details: Drugs with the highest risk of DILI in this study were azathioprine and infliximab. Keywords: hepatotoxicity, drugs, drug-induced liver injury, idiosyncratic. 1. Introduction. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a frequent differential diagnosis in patients with acute liver injury without obvious etiology. Apart from exclusion of competing

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Drug abuse in athletes

Details: Introduction. Doping, defined as use of drugs or other substances for performance enhancement, has become an important topic in virtually every sport1 and has been discovered in athletes of all ages and at every level of competition.2–4 See Table 1 for rates of use of a variety of substances, whether doping agents or recreational substances, among different populations of …

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Drug Solubility: Importance and Enhancement Techniques

Details: Micronization of drugs is done by milling techniques using jet mill, rotor stator colloid mills and so forth micronization is not suitable for drugs having a high dose number because it does not change the saturation solubility of the drug . These processes were applied to griseofulvin, progesterone, spironolactone diosmin, and fenofibrate.

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Off-label drugs for weight management

Details: Drugs commonly used off-label for weight management are discussed in the following section. Amphetamine. Methamphetamine (desoxyephedrine) was first approved in 1943 by the FDA for treating narcolepsy, mild depression, postencephalitic Parkinson syndrome, chronic alcoholism, cerebral arteriosclerosis, and hay fever. Later, in 1947

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Antiretroviral Therapy: Current Drugs

Details: Currently available antiretroviral drugs have greater potency, tolerability, and less pill burden than earlier agents. Understanding the potency of the drugs and drug regimens, toxicity profile, drug interaction potential and resistance potential will help the clinicians to …

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Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

Details: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class FDA-approved for use as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic agents. These effects make NSAIDs useful for treating muscle pain, dysmenorrhea, arthritic conditions, pyrexia, gout, migraines, and used as opioid-sparing agents in certain acute trauma cases.

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Brief review on repurposed drugs and vaccines for possible

Details: Some drugs target the epigenetic regulators in the host like valproic acid, which is an approved drug, and apicidin, a preclinical candidate, that inhibit HDAC2. Clinical candidates like ABBV-744 and CPI-0610 inhibit BRD2/4 (Gordon et al., 2020).

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Narrow therapeutic index drugs: a clinical pharmacological

Details: Generic drugs may be substituted for brand-name drugs provided that they meet the recommended bioequivalence (BE) limits. However, an appropriate range of BE for NTIDs is essential to define due to the potential for ineffectiveness or adverse events. Flecainide is an antiarrhythmic agent that has the potential to be considered an NTID.

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Anticholinergic Medications

Details: Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraindications for anticholinergic drugs as valuable agents in managing cholinergic toxicity, urinary incontinence, Parkinson disease, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disease, and numerous other diseases.

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Effects of 14 frequently used drugs on prostate-specific

Details: Table I shows the most frequently prescribed drugs for elderly men, including the drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases (such as hypertension and diabetes). Firstly, the effects of the drugs listed in Table 1 on the viability of androgen receptor (AR)-positive prostate cancer LNCaP cells were examined. LNCaP cells were treated with each

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Designer drugs: mechanism of action and adverse effects

Details: Designer drugs can generally be divided into the same categories as traditional drugs of abuse, namely stimulants, sedatives, dissociatives, cannabinoids, and psychedelics. However, in contrast to traditional drugs of abuse, newly emerging drugs can remain undetected by routine drug screening, and information about associated adverse effects is

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Food-Drug Interactions

Details: Drugs can show their efficacy only if administered in appropriate quantity with appropriate combination of drugs and foods and at appropriate time. In contrast to the easy access to information on drug-drug interactions, the information about food-drug interaction is not always available conveniently. It is a difficult and complex problem to

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Knock-Out Drugs: Their Prevalence, Modes of Action, and

Details: Background. Knock-out drugs are used to facilitate the commission of a crime, generally either robbery or sexual assault. Although media reports on the use of knock-out drugs have become more frequent, there are no robust epidemiological data on the incidence of drug-facilitated robbery or sexual assault, presumably because many crimes of these types do not enter into official statistics.

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Classification of illegal and harmful drugs

Details: The classification system (based on the United Nations Single Convention, 1971, and the Misuse of Drugs Act, 1971) was designed as a way to control the use of illegal drugs according to their relative harmfulness (table). 2 The Misuse of Drugs Act created the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs to oversee the system.

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Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction and their

Details: DISTRIBUTION. Usually, drugs are transported through a binding to plasma and tissues proteins. Of the many plasma proteins interacting with drugs, the most important are albumin, α 1-acid glycoprotein, and lipoproteins.Acidic drugs are usually bound more extensively to albumin, while basic drugs are usually bound more extensively to α 1-acid glycoprotein, lipoproteins, or both.

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Drug Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

Details: Drugs associated with supportive care include antihypertensives, antipyretics, and insulin. Drugs associated with treating, and potentially reversing, the effects of the ischemic stroke directly consist of thrombolytics. Drugs used to prevent recurrent strokes include anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

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Drug Resistance in Cancer: An Overview

Details: Epigenetic drugs may assist in this endeavor as they are thought to be capable of sensitizing drug resistant cancer cells to other drugs [73,74,75,107,111,112], and recent studies have supported these propositions [108,110]. Further research in this direction is needed to improve overall understanding and treatment of drug resistant cancers.

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Drugs in breastfeeding

Details: Drugs contraindicated during breastfeeding include anticancer drugs, lithium, oral retinoids, iodine, amiodarone and gold salts. An understanding of the principles underlying the transfer into breast milk is important, as is an awareness of the potential adverse effects on the infant.

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Natural products derived from plants as a source of drugs

Details: During the last decade few plant derived drugs have been launched include Arteether, endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone and semisynthetic natural product derived from Artemisinin used in malarial treatment, Nitisinone derived from natural product Leptospermone (Callistemon citrinus) is used in treatment of antityrosinaemia, galantamine is a

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Cardiovascular complications of recreational drugs

Details: The consumption of recreational drugs has reached epidemic proportions. Forty five million European Union citizens have used cannabis at some time, with proportionately higher use among younger people. 1 The consumption of harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin is rising, with an estimated 1.5 million problem users in the European Union. Drug use is commonly associated with …

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Lipid-lowering drugs

Details: Fibrates. In contrast to statins, this group of drugs does not inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis. However, these drugs stimulate β-oxidation of fatty acids mainly in peroxisomes and partly in mitochondria [3, 4, 15, 16].Therefore, this group of drugs is known to lower plasma levels of fatty acid and triacylglycerol.

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3 Physiological Effects of Alcohol, Drugs, and Tobacco on

Details: Based on human and animal studies, women are more sensitive to the consumption and long-term effects of alcohol and drugs than men. From absorption to metabolic processes, women display more difficulty in physically managing the consequences of use. In general, with higher levels of alcohol and drugs in the system for longer periods of time, women are also more susceptible to alcohol- and drug

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Light-Sensitive Injectable Prescription Drugs

Details: Exposure to light is a concern with numerous medications due to the potential for photodegradation or other chemical reactions that affect drug stability. In 2009, Hospital Pharmacy published a list of oral medications that require protection …

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Cannabinoids, Neurogenesis and Antidepressant Drugs: Is

Details: Interestingly, drugs used in the clinical practice to treat these psychiatry disorders, such as antidepressants or lithium, normalize or even increase hippocampal neurogenesis [24, 28-30]. Together these findings support the proposal that adult hippocampal neurogenesis, in addition to influencing learning and memory process, is also involved in

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Artificial intelligence in drug discovery and development

Details: Several combinations of drugs are approved and marketed to treat complex diseases, such as TB and cancer, because they can provide a synergistic effect for quick recovery 120, 121. The selection of precise and potential drugs for combination requires high-throughput screening of a considerable number of drugs, making the process tedious; for

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Drugs, Violence, and Trauma in Mexico and the USA

Details: Introduction. The trade of psychoactive and other drugs has existed since ancient times. The criminalization of drug possession and trade most likely occurred during the Middle Ages, and such prohibitive legislation has continued to the present day [].Illegal drug trafficking is a global black market.

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Exploring factors associated with patients' adherence to

Details: Objective: To explore factors associated with adherence to antihypertensive drugs overall (therapy adherence) and to particular classes (class adherence) in hypertensive patients. Methods: The current retrospective cohort study included adults with primary hypertension identified in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink from April 2006 to March 2013.

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Repurposing clinically approved drugs for COVID-19

Details: Until now, few drugs are available for COVID-19 treatment. SARS-CoV-2 is a linear single-stranded RNA virus with a full-length genome of about 30 kb. SARS-CoV-2 encodes an essential papain-like protease domain as part of its non-structural protein (nsp)-3, namely PLpro.

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Multi-Target Drugs

Details: Hence, again, multimodal drugs, which could reduce hyperglycemia and concomitantly inhibit the progression of complications, may offer a valuable therapeutic option. 2. Incretin-Based Therapies. 2.1. Overview. Enhancing the incretin effects is a prominent approach to successfully treat diabetes and to control obesity.

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Overview of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

Details: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is the clinical practice of measuring specific drugs at designated intervals to maintain a constant concentration in a patient's bloodstream, thereby optimizing individual dosage regimens. It is unnecessary to employ TDM for the majority of medications, and it is used mainly for monitoring drugs with narrow

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Medications for the Treatment of Sleep Disorders: An Overview

Details: The many drugs in this class are best viewed therapeutically based on their pharmacodynamics (Table 1). Rapid onset of action is characteristic of flurazepam and triazolam, indicating that both of these agents have excellent sleep-inducing effects. Flurazepam, like diazepam and clorazepate, has active breakdown products.

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Psychotropic drugs and liver disease: A critical review of

Details: Some psychotropic drugs are water-soluble and are directly removed from the circulation in the urine and bile, which is the case with lithium, gabapentin, and topiramate. However, all of the other psychotropic drugs are lipid soluble and must be metabolized in the liver, where they undergo some chemical changes and become more soluble.

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FDA approved antibacterial drugs: 2018-2019

Details: Bacterial resistance to existent antibiotherapy is a perpetual internationally-recognized problem. Year after year, there is a continuous need for novel antibacterial drugs and this research and development efforts recently resulted in few new drugs or combination of …

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Dose Equivalents for Antipsychotic Drugs: The DDD Method

Details: The DDDs of depot drugs are based on the average recommended doses divided by the dosing interval. 4 We also present the results based on the following other methods to define dose equivalence for comparison: the “minimum effective dose method,” 9 the “classical mean dose method” (based on the original work by Davis in 1974 2 for first

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Developmental Consequences of Fetal Exposure to Drugs

Details: Most drugs of abuse easily cross the placenta and can affect fetal brain development. In utero exposures to drugs thus can have long-lasting implications for brain structure and function. These effects on the developing nervous system, before homeostatic regulatory mechanisms are properly calibrated, often differ from their effects on mature systems.

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Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs

Details: Endocannabinoids, CB1 antagonists and CB2 agonists as potential drugs for the treatment of liver injury. Cannabinoids & RA Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects approximately 1% of the human population and is manifested in joint destruction, deformity and loss of function associated with joint stiffness, pain

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Use and Abuse of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs in US

Details: The opportunity to use illicit drugs was reported by 81.4% of the oldest adolescents, drug use by 42.5%, and drug abuse by 16.4%. The median age at onset was 14 years for alcohol abuse with or without dependence, 14 years for drug abuse with dependence, and 15 …

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Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a

Details: INTRODUCTION. Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that has been characterized by the compulsive use of addictive substances despite adverse consequences to the individual and society [].Addiction to drugs and alcohol is increasingly becoming a worldwide trend in lifestyle that is prevalent in rich and poor countries alike.

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Marine natural products: a new wave of drugs

Details: Nature is an ancient pharmacy that used to be the solitary source of therapeutics for the early eras. Yet, the renaissance of science and the deeper understanding of the pathology of several diseases enabled the design and synthesis of drug molecules for specific molecular targets, and, thus, shifted the attention from the ‘natural pharmacy’ to the purely synthetic drugs [1,2].

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