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Drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs. Chemicals that act on living systems and may be used in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of a disease. This section covers commonly used drugs (including mechanism of action, indications for use, appropriate route of administration, contraindications and adverse effects). This knowledge could support rational prescribing decisions

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Drugs used in oncology Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Antimitotic Drugs (Vinca alkaloids and Taxanes): Inhibit the dynamic instability of microtubules and thus arrests the cell cycle in mitosis. Protein kinase inhibitors and Antibodies: These are relatively new group of drugs which target specific growth receptors and thus help control cell growth and differentiation.

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Antidepressant drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: A small number of drugs don’t easily fall into this classification and are listed under Atypical antidepressants below. There is little to choose between the different classes of antidepressant drugs in terms of efficacy, so choice should be based on the individual patient’s requirements, including the presence of other existing disease and

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Drugs acting on the immune system Pharmacology Education

Details: Drugs acting on the immune system. The immune system discriminates self from non-self allowing it to destroy infectious invaders or tumors while leaving normal cells intact. Two components, innate and adaptive provide an early active response and an antigen-specific response, respectively. Innate immunity is comprised of complement

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Drugs used in inflammation Pharmacology Education Project

Details: The medicines in this section include those which act against inflammation. These include drugs used to manage joint inflammation (arthritis), skin inflammation (e.g. eczema), ocular inflammation, gut inflammation (e.g. ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) as well as for respiratory tract and allergy-associated inflammation.This module is under construction.

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Hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Z-drugs: zaleplon (very short-acting), zolpidem tartrate and zopiclone (both short-acting drugs) are non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, which bind to a different site on GABA A receptors compared to the benzodiazepines, although they produce the same receptor activation. Dependence has been reported in a small number of patients.

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Drug excretion Pharmacology Education Project

Details: The kidney is the principal drug-excreting organ. The three components of renal excretion, i.e. glomerular filtration, secretion, and reabsorption, are introduced in a brief video from Handwritten Tutorials (see the Learning Resources at the end of this topic).All renally excreted drugs reach urine via glomerular filtration.Many drugs additionally are secreted into the proximal tubule through

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Antisecretory drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Antisecretory drugs. In the gastrointestinal system, anti-secretory drugs are used to decrease acid secretion in the stomach. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists are used to treat functional dyspepsia and to promote healing of NSAID-associated ulcers e.g. ranitidine, cimetidine and famotidine. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used to treat

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Nervous system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Z-drugs: zaleplon (very short-acting), zolpidem tartrate and zopiclone (both short-acting drugs) are non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, which bind to a different site on GABA A receptors compared to the benzodiazepines, although they produce the same receptor activation. Dependence has been reported in a small number of patients.

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Clinical pharmacokinetics Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Metabolism is the process by which drugs are chemically altered to make them sufficiently water-soluble for excretion in urine or faeces (via the biliary tract). Metabolism occurs in a variety of body organs and tissues, but chiefly in the liver, gut wall, kidney and skin. Excretion is …

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Drug distribution Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs that have relatively small Vd (e.g. 5 L) largely stay in the plasma compartment. Drugs with a Vd of 15L distribute throughout vascular and extracellular fluid compartments. Drugs with a Vd > 40 L distribute throughout all body tissues (vascular, extracellular, and intracellular fluid compartments).

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Drug absorption Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs that are un-ionized will be better able to diffuse through a lipid cellular membrane, cross a biologic barrier, and enter the bloodstream (e.g. be absorbed) compared to drugs that are ionized. Thus, a key take-home point is: a drug that is a weak acid will be best absorbed in an acidic environment (because it gains a proton and becomes un

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Ion channels Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Mechanistically these drugs bind to an intracellular portion of voltage-gated sodium channels blocking sodium influx into nerve cells, which prevents depolarization. Without depolarization, no initiation or conduction of a pain signal can occur. Some anticonvulsants (antiepileptic drugs or AEDs) work at least in part, by blocking sodium channels.

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Drugs for infections Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs used for infections include antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals, antimycobacterials and antiparasitic drugs. Antibacterials which act to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria, target essential bacterial molecular pathways not shared with the host (e.g. inhibiting nucleic acid precursor synthesis, protein synthesis, and cell membrane integrity).

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Drug regulation Pharmacology Education Project

Details: New drugs are given a ‘market authorisation’ based on the evidence of quality, safety and efficacy presented by the manufacturer. The regulator will not only approve the drug but will also take great care to ensure that the accompanying information reflects the evidence that has been presented. This document is known as the Summary of

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Drugs used in haematology Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs and blood clotting. This session covers the basic pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of drugs developed to prevent and/or reverse thrombus (blood clot) formation. It includes an overview of anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents and thrombolytic agents. It is aimed at preclinical medical or dental students, or students in their early

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Drugs acting on the eye Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs acting on the eye. Drugs acting on the eye. The eye is a complex sensory organ responsible for sight. Injury or disease to the ocular system can result in vision loss. A variety of ophthalmic preparations (topical, parenteral, and oral) are available for both therapeutic and diagnostic use. Medications play a key role in the management of

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Anticoagulant drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Anticoagulant drugs. Anticoagulants are used to prevent the formation or growth of fibrin/erythrocyte thrombi in the venous circulation. They are not useful for treating arterial thrombi which are mainly composed of platelet aggregates. Anticoagulants can be administered parenterally or orally.

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Therapeutic index Pharmacology Education Project

Details: When drugs are used in clinical practice, the prescriber is unable to construct a careful dose–response curve for each individual patient. Therefore, most drugs are licensed for use within a recommended dose range that is expected to be close to the top of the dose–response curve for most patients.

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Drug metabolism Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs can be also conjugated with glutathione or glycine, or modified by the transfer of methyl, acetyl, or sulpha groups from donor compounds. The Liver and Drug Metabolism. This is a short interactive teaching resource provided by the University of Nottingham for their nursing and midwifery students. It guides the user easily through the drug

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Gastrointestinal system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Antisecretory drugs. In the gastrointestinal system, anti-secretory drugs are used to decrease acid secretion in the stomach. Histamine H 2 receptor antagonists are used to treat functional dyspepsia and to promote healing of NSAID-associated ulcers e.g. ranitidine, cimetidine and famotidine. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used to treat

› Verified 3 days ago

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Locomotor system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Different types of arthritis (rheumatic disease) are treated with different drugs. The aim of the clinician is to prescribe drugs which improve symptoms and, where possible, slow or halt progress of the condition. As their name suggests, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) offer benefit via the latter mechanism. Full therapeutic

› Verified 6 days ago

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Drugs used in gynaecology Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs used in gynaecology. This module is under construction. If you have relevant content you are willing to share, we would appreciate your contribution. Contact [email protected]pharmacologyeducation.org, or complete the webform on the Contribute to the Project page.

› Verified 2 days ago

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Anaesthetic drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Modern, fast-acting drugs have been designed to limit the time spent in stage 2. Stage 3: surgical anesthesia - during this stage muscles relax, motor reflexes are blunted, vomiting stops, breathing is depressed and eye movements cease. Anaesthesia is then maintained for the duration of the procedure using IV or inhalational anaesthetics.

› Verified 7 days ago

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Adverse drug reactions Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Some drugs rarely cause ADRs (e.g. paracetamol) while others frequently do so (e.g. cancer chemotherapy). The decision to prescribe these ‘higher risk’ drugs will depend on the extent of the potential benefits. Although prescribers always face the possibility of causing an ADR the risks of doing so can be minimised by (i) recognition of

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Cardiovascular system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: FIBRINOLYTIC DRUGS; Summary of fibrinolytics used in the clinic. Fibrinolytic drugs enhance the normal process of thrombus degradation, via activation of plasminogen, an enzyme crucial to clot breakdown. Mechanistically they are in effect recombinant versions of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), the enzyme that converts plasminogen to plasmin- plasmin being largely responsible for …

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Antipsychotic drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Antipsychotic drugs. Antipsychotic use is associated with significant side-effects, most notably movement disorders (tardive dyskinesia) and weight gain. It is unclear whether the atypical (second-generation) antipsychotics offer advantages over older, first generation antipsychotics. Drop-out and symptom relapse rates are similar for both

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Pharmacodynamics Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Pharmacodynamics. Pharmacodynamics is the study of how drugs have effects on the body. The most common mechanism is by the interaction of the drug with tissue receptors located either in cell membranes or in the intracellular fluid. The extent of receptor activation, and the subsequent biological response, is related to the concentration of the

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Drugs for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection Pharmacology

Details: The anti-human CMV drugs used currently target CMV replication via two distinct mechanisms.. pUL54 inhibitors. Ganciclovir (GCV; Cytovene) is a nucleoside analogue. It must be phosphorylated (to the nucleotide) by the viral protein kinase, pUL97 to confer anti-viral activity.

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Endocrine system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Both drugs are contraindicated in patients with class III-IV heart failure due to black box warnings for increased risk of heart failure. Rosiglitazone has a second black box warning for increased risk of myocardial events. Other adverse effects that may limit utility in practice include weight gain, edema, and increased risk of fractures.

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Lipid-lowering drugs Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Lipid-lowering drugs. There are several classes of established lipid-lowering, or antihyperlipidemic drugs available to the prescriber. The choice of which agent to use depends greatly on the patient's cholesterol profile, cardiovascular, liver and kidney function. Statins are designed to lower LDL, the 'bad cholesterol' most strongly linked to

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Renal system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs from these different families can be prescribed in fixed-dose combinations, which can be used when compliance using separate medications is an issue. Examples include furosemide with triamterene or spironolactone, co-triamterzide (triamterene plus hydrochlorothiazide), co-amilofruse (amiloride plus furosemide) and co-amilozide (amiloride

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Individual variation in drug response Pharmacology

Details: Drugs and patients in need of. All therapies require optimization. The individual intensity and urgency is determined by the pharmacological and toxicological drug properties, by the course of the disease, and by patient-specific factors. Drugs requiring optimization and monitoring are usually rich in serious undesired effects and/or they are

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Respiratory system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: The beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist drugs used in respiratory medicine function as long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs).They are prescribed as single agents or in combination with inhaled corticosteroids or muscarinic receptor antagonists. Single agent long-acting beta 2 agonists. Salmeterol, prescribed for reversible airways obstruction, nocturnal asthma, and prevention of exercise-induced

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Drug development and marketing Pharmacology Education

Details: The use of drugs in those aged 0-19 years is not generally assessed during the development of biopharmaceuticals, primarily because of the vulnerability of paediatric patients and the need to provide additional safeguards if they are to be included in clinical research.

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Autonomic Pharmacology Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Autonomic pharmacology is the study of how drugs interact with the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the control of the internal organs including the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract and vasculature. Drugs which target the autonomic nervous system are, therefore, useful in the treatment of a

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Receptors Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Receptor pharmacology is the study of the interactions of receptors with endogenous ligands, drugs/pharmaceuticals and other xenobiotics. In order to understand the molecular mechanism underlying a ligand's effect on physiological or therapeutic cellular responses a number of basic principles of receptor theory must be considered.

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Drug interactions Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Distribution interactions occur when drugs are extensively protein-bound and the co-administration of a second can displace it to the non-bound active form.This increases the amount of (unbound) drug available to cause an effect. For example, diazepam displaces phenytoin from plasma proteins, resulting in an increased plasma concentration of free phenytoin and an increased risk of toxicity.

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The Sympathetic Nervous System Pharmacology Education

Details: Drugs which affect the synthesis or storage of noradrenaline will affect all sympathetic nerves, thereby causing a diverse range of effects. In addition, because there is an overlap in the mechanisms involved in the synthesis, storage, release and removal of noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine, drugs which affect noradrenergic neurotransmission will have similar effects on adrenergic and

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Genitourinary system Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Antimuscarinic drugs for urinary frequency, urgency, and incontinence (overactive bladder syndrome). Darifenacin, fesoterodine (antimuscarinic prodrug), flavoxate (also used for bladder spasms due to catheterisation, cytoscopy, or surgery, hyoscine (scopolamine) butylbromide for symptomatic relief of gastro-intestinal or genito-urinary disorders characterised by smooth muscle spasm, oxybutynin

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The Parasympathetic Nervous System Pharmacology

Details: Drugs affecting synthesis, storage or release of acetylcholine. Synthesis of acetylcholine is dependent on uptake of its immediate precursor, choline which is then metabolized to acetylcholine via a single step catalyzed by choline acetyltransferase (CAT). Hemicholinium competes with choline for the choline transporter, resulting in inhibition of acetylcholine synthesis.

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Enzymes Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), used clinically to relieve fever and pain, such as those associated with headaches, colds, flu, and arthritis. NSAIDs are available by prescription and over-the-counter (OTC). COX inhibitors can act at one or both of the isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins which are

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Clinical pharmacodynamics Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs are exogenous molecules that are intended to restore the activity of the endogenous systems to normal by increasing or decreasing the activity of key regulatory pathways. They do this by exerting effects on cells and tissues, either by initiating new events or blocking the actions of endogenous substances, to exert a biological effect.

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Desensitisation and tachyphylaxis Pharmacology Education

Details: This slide set walks the learner through the definition of desensitization (homologous and heterologous) and mechanisms whereby it can occur. Other terms are defined as well including tachyphylaxis, tolerance, and down regulation, among others.

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Drugs acting on the skin Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs acting on the skin. Drugs acting on the skin. This module is under construction. If you have relevant content you are willing to share, we would appreciate your contribution. Contact [email protected]pharmacologyeducation.org, or complete the webform on the Contribute to the Project page.

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Positive inotropic drugs: Cardiac glycosides (digoxin

Details: Positive inotropic drugs: Cardiac glycosides (digoxin) Digoxin is a member of a class of drugs known as the cardiac glycosides that also includes digitoxin and ouabain. Cardiac glycosides occur naturally in plants of the genera Digitalis, such as foxgloves and Strophanthus. Only digoxin and very rarely digitoxin are used clinically.

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Therapeutic drug monitoring Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Therapeutic drug monitoring is the term usually applied to the monitoring of drug therapy using plasma drug concentration. Three criteria must be met if plasma concentration is to be a useful marker for clinical endpoints: Clinical endpoints and other pharmacodynamic (surrogate) effects are difficult to monitor.

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Peptides Pharmacology Education Project

Details: Drugs which block the receptors for endogenous peptide ligands can be peptide or non-peptide molecules. Examples include naloxone (opioid receptors), aprepitant (substance P receptors), and losartan (angiotensin II type 1). Tweet Widget. Pharmacology of proteins and peptides

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