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Drug Development

Details: Drugs targeted against G-protein coupled receptors, nuclear (hormone) receptors, and ion channels represent slightly less than 50% of the marketed drugs. By far, drugs directed against enzymes represent the largest portion of marketed drugs [1]. Expansion into new types of drug targets may be necessary to fill certain therapeutic voids, but a

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Sympathomimetic Drug

Details: Sympathomimetic drugs —such as cocaine, amphetamines, phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP), and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)—can precipitate a hypertensive emergency. 44,133–136 Cocaine hypertensive emergencies have been documented in patients with illicit use and patients suffering from iatrogenic complications due to epistaxis

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Drug Intoxication

Details: In Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs (Sixteenth Edition), 2016. Drug overdose. Suicide is the leading cause of premature death among patients with schizophrenia. The lifetime incidence of completed suicide among patients with schizophrenia is about 10% [658] and 18–55% of patients with schizophrenia make suicide attempts [659], sometimes with neuroleptic drugs.

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Drug-Related Crime

Details: Drug-Related Crime. the cost of drug related crime alone is estimated to be £13.9 billion per year, with every £1 spent on drug treatment estimated to save £2.50 in health and criminal justice costs (NHS National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, 2016).

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Antimicrobial Drugs

Details: Antimicrobial drugs may interact with the kidneys in several ways. Decreased renal function often results in slower excretion of drugs or their metabolites. In the extreme situation the patient lacks renal function and is treated with hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis or hemofiltration; since most antimicrobial drugs are low-molecular-weight compounds they are often readily eliminated from

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Antiobesity Drugs

Details: Antiobesity drugs should be prescribed in an appropriate clinical setting that includes systems for monitoring and follow-up of progress. The choice of antiobesity drug is largely dependent on the experience of the prescriber in using one or another agent (see Table 5).For the two agents currently recommended for use there are no good clinical studies that have directly compared them or have

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Oral Drug Administration

Details: Absorption of these drugs is given by the membrane permeability. Transepithelial electrical resistance is one of the parameters used to measure the integrity and tightness of the barrier and is the lowest in the small intestine. 9 The barrier is formed by a columnar epithelial cell layer covered with a mucus membrane that protects and

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Drug-Drug Interaction

Details: Drug-drug interactions can occur when drugs are administered by nonenteral routes. A common concern in the intensive care unit setting is “compatibility” of drugs given by the IV route, whether the drugs are to be coadministered in the same IV bag or through common IV access lines.

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Non Prescription Drug

Details: Nonprescription drugs, such as alcohol (as the porter says to Macduff in Act II, Scene 3, of Macbeth, “It provokes the desire but takes away the performance”), and illicit drugs, such as cocaine, methadone, and heroin, can cause impotence. The prescription drugs most commonly associated with impotence include the following:

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Adverse Effect of Drug

Details: The adverse effects of drugs that affect autonomic functions or the extrapyramidal system are reviewed based on literature published mainly from January 2015 to December 2015. Adrenaline is reported to Takotsubo syndrome and Kounis syndrome as has been in recent years. Droxidopa is a prodrug of noradrenaline and is newly listed in this section.

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Veterinary Drugs

Details: Veterinary drugs are used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in animals to regulate infections of bacterial and prevent outbreaks of animal diseases ( Lv et al., 2018 ). Antibiotics are an example of veterinary drugs used to enhance animal health and development. Nevertheless, the unnecessary use of antibiotics can lead to the

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Neuromuscular-Blocking Drug

Details: Neuromuscular-Blocking Drug. Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are hydrophilic drugs that are commonly used in clinical practice for paralysis in rapid sequence intubation, tracheostomy, to facilitate mechanical ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and to prevent and treat shivering in patients undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

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Drug Therapeutic Index

Details: In NTI drugs, relatively small changes in doses or exposures may yield serious treatment failure or severe adverse events. According to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR 320.33), a narrow therapeutic ratio drug may be determined based on the following criteria:

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Design and discovery of boronic acid drugs

Details: Boronic acids as drugs are becoming increasingly relevant. In fact, four boron-containing drugs have been approved in the past five years, (Bortezomib as approved in 2005), with several others in clinical trials. Download : Download high-res image (195KB) Download : …

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Antiproliferative Drug

Details: Varun Saxena, Norah A. Terrault, in Zakim and Boyer's Hepatology (Seventh Edition), 2018. Antiproliferative Drugs. MMF and azathioprine, both antiproliferative drugs, are used as part of immunosuppressive regimens in combination with calcineurin inhibitors and corticosteroids but MMF is most commonly used. 299 Both inhibit inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and share some …

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Synthesis of Essential Drugs ScienceDirect

Details: Drugs that are used for treating respiratory system illnesses can be classified as antiedematous drugs, anti-cough and expectorant agents, as well as bronchiolytics and other drugs used to treat bronchial asthma, such as methylxanthine, anticholinergic drugs, adrenergic drugs, allergy mediator releasing inhibitors, and corticosteroids.

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Occurrence, removal and mass loads of antiviral drugs in

Details: 1. Introduction. Antiviral drugs are a class of pharmaceuticals designed to treat viral infections, such as influenza, herpes, hepatitis, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs) (Peng et al., 2014; De Clercq, 2002, 2007).It is estimated that 250 million people worldwide are living with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Yu et al., 2020), and approximately 25% of the global total infection are

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Enteral Administration

Details: Enteral administration involves absorption of the drug via the GI tract and includes oral, gastric or duodenal (e.g., feeding tube), and rectal administration. . Oral (PO) administration is the most frequently used route of administration because of its simplicity and convenience, which improve patient compliance. Bioavailability of drugs administered orally varies greatly.

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P2Y12 antagonists: Approved drugs, potential naturally

Details: This test is the most specific test for measuring the inhibition of P2Y 12 by drugs such as clopidogrel . VASP's phosphorylation-state of whole blood can be tested using Western blot or flow cytometry . In flow cytometric assay blood samples are collected in 3.8% sodium citrate and incubated in-vitro with ADP and/or PGE1 before fixation.

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The Actions and Uses of Ophthalmic Drugs ScienceDirect

Details: Ophthalmic drugs (cycloplegics, mydriatics, miotics) directly or indirectly, stimulate or inhibit a part of the autonomic nervous system connected to the intra-ocular muscles. The text investigates in detail the structure and function of this involuntary nervous system in …

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Modulation of biopharmaceutical properties of drugs using

Details: Tosylate occurs in several recently approved drugs, with eight drugs in the last decade. Sorafenib (8) is an antitumor agent with a very low pH-dependent aqueous solubility of 1.7, 34, and 13 μg/mL in water, pH 1.0 and pH 4.5, respectively. It is a BCS class II drug with log P of 3.8 .

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Living Under Coronavirus and Injecting Drugs in Bristol

Details: Introduction. In the United Kingdom (UK) and worldwide, COVID-19 has resulted in rapid and unprecedented changes to society, with public health measures to limit the spread of infection affecting housing services, healthcare systems, harm reduction and drug treatment provision (Wisse et al., 2021).These changes are expected to have severe direct and indirect impacts on People Who Inject …

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Wastewater-based epidemiology for illicit drugs: A

Details: Drugs of abuse and their metabolites in the Ebro River basin : occurrence in sewage and surface water, sewage treatment plants removal ef fi ciency, and collective drug usage estimation Environ. Int. , 36 ( 1 ) ( 2010 ) , pp. 75 - 84 , 10.1016/j.envint.2009.10.004

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Marine-derived drugs: Recent advances in cancer therapy

Details: Presently, anticancer drugs from marine sources have been utilized to precisely regulate endogenous immune mechanisms against various fatal cancer. In addition, numerous drugs, for example, Apratoxin A, GV-c9, and GV-c1, LS-1, SD, have established critical anticancer features by hindering the JAK/STAT innate immune signaling pathway.

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Optical Isomerism in Drugs

Details: Many drugs having a center of asymmetry are still used in clinical practice as racemates. Racemic mixtures were estimated to represent 10–15 percent of all marketed drugs [3] . For certain types of therapeutics, such as the β-adrenergic agents, β-adrenergic blockers, antiepileptics, and oral anticoagulants, up to 90 percent of the compounds

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Prevalence study of drugs and new psychoactive substances

Details: In toxicological and forensic cases, drugs are generally analyzed in different matrices (blood, urine, vitreous humor, hair, liver, gastric content, bile, kidney, lung, meconium, etc). The blood sample is the reference or sample of choice to quantify and interpret the concentrations of drugs and their metabolites of recent or acute intoxications.

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